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This is a research survey, commissioned by the UNFPA, of the measurable effects of women's education on fertility and female autonomy. Women's access to education is a fundamental right, empowering women and affecting their demographic behaviour. However, beyond some general assertions, there is little consensus on the exact nature of the relationships between education, fertility, and autonomy. This study reviews the considerable evidence from the developing world that has emerged over the last twenty years, and then passes beyond the limits of previous studies to address these relationships. Supported by full documentation of available survey data, it concludes that such contextual factors as the overall level of socioeconomic development and the situation of women in traditional kinship structures complicate the general assumptions. It lays out the policy implications of these findings and fruitful directions for future research.